Management is the integrated process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling and coordinating between all the activities or we can say from small scale activities to large scale activities, we can also say it as success desired, result oriented pool of activities followed by day to day work to, year to year and decade to decade as so on.
The management is a function of well-planned, skillful and systematic execution of various levels of activities in order to receive a desired result with the help of 3Ms + 5Ms (3 basics & 5 Supportives or General versus Business Management respectively) .
This is the great task which creates satisfaction at various levels of Individual and organizational need.
According to some great persons it can be defined as:-
A'Management Is a distinct process consisting of planning, organising, actuating and controlling; utilising in each both science and art, and followed in order to accomplish pre-determined objectives."
- George R Terry (1877 - 1955)
"Management is the art of getting things done through others and with formally organised groups."
- Harold Koontz (1909-1984)
"Management may be defined as the process by means of which the purpose and objectives of a particular human group are determined, clarified and effectuated"
Management is a multipurpose organ that manage a business and manages Managers and manages Workers and work.
- Peter Ferdinand Drucker (November 19, 1909 – November 11, 2005)
"Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and the cheapest way."
- Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915)
One popular definition is by Mary Parker Follett. Management, she says, is the "art of getting things done through people."
- Mary Parker Follett (3 September 1868 – 18 December 1933)
Management is the art and science of decision-making and leadership.”
- Donald J. Clough
Management is a process of releasing and directing human energies towards attaining a definite goal.
- C. W. Wilson
“Management is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and control activities of others.”
- Henri Fayol
“Good management, or scientific management, achieves a social objective with the best use of human and material energy and time, and with satisfaction for the participants and the public.”
- Mary Cushing Nile
“Management is defined as the process by which a cooperative group directs action towards common goals.”
- Joseph Massie
“Management is a social and technical process which utilizes, resources, influences, human action and facilitates changes in order to accomplish organizational goals.”
- Theo Haimann & William Scott
“Management is the development of people and not the direction of things”.
- Lawrence A Appley
“Management is principally the task of planning, coordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective”
- James L Lundy
“Management is the force which leads, guides and directs an organisation in the accomplishment of a pre-determined object”.
- J.N. Schulze
“Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals”.
- Koontz and O’Donnel
“Management is the fundamental integrating and operating mechanism underlying organized efforts”.
- Dalton E. Mc Farland
“Management is the process and agency which directs and guides the operations of an organisation in realizing of established aims”
- Ordway Tead
“Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the efforts of organization members and using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals.”
- James A.E. Stone
“Management is simply the process of decision-making and control over the actions of human beings for the express purpose of attaining predetermined goals”.
- Stanley Vance
“Business management is a human activity which directs and controls the organisation and operation of a business enterprise. Management is centered in the administrators of managers of the firm who integrate men, material and money into an effective operating limit”.
- B.O. Wheeler
“Management is that function of an enterprise which concerns itself with the direction and control of the various activities to attain the business objectives”
- William Spriegel
“Management consists of getting things done through others. Manager is one who accomplishes the objectives by directing the efforts of others”.
- S. George
“Management is the force that integrates men and physical plant into an effective operating unit”.
- Keith and Gubellini
“The job of management is to make cooperative endeavor to function properly. A manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources”.
- Newman, Summer and Warren
“Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum results with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum results with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and give the public the best possible service”.
- John F M
“Management embraces all duties and functions that pertain to the initiation of an enterprise, its financing, the establishment of all major policies, the provision of all necessary equipment, the outlining of the general form of organisation under which the enterprise is to operate and the selection of the principal officers. The group of officials in primary control of an enterprise is referred to as management”.
- Kimball and Kimball
“Management is a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and regulation of the operations of an enterprise, in fulfillment of a given purpose or task, such responsibility involving: (a) judgement and decision in determining plans and in using data to control performance, and progress against plans; and (b) the guidance, integration, motivation and supervision of the personnel composing the enterprise and carrying out its operations”.
- E.F.L. Brech
“Management is a technique by means of which the purpose and objectives of a particular human group are determined, classified and effectuated”.
- E. Peterson and E.G Plowman
“Management is a social and technical process which utilizes, resources, influences, human action and facilitates changes in order to accomplish organizational goals”.
- Theo Haimann and William Scott
“Management means decision-making.”
- Ross Moore
“Management is the process of getting things done through the agency of a community. The functions of management are the handling of a community with a view to fulfilling the purposes for which it exists.”
- Sir Charles Reynold
“Management is the art of directing and inspiring people.”
- James D. Mooney and Alan C. Reiley
Nature / Features of Managements
Objectives of Managements
Level of Management
Functions of Management
Henri Fayol (1949), the founder of modern management theory, divided all activities of organizations into six groups:
Fayol distinguishes between the principles and elements of management. Principles are the rules and guidelines, while elements are the functions of management. He has grouped the elements into five managerial functions — planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. His classification is widely accepted.
Luther Gullick used the acronym POSD CORB — letters of the acronym indicate different management functions, namely, planning (P), organizing (O), staffing (S), directing (D), coordinating (CO), reporting (R), and budgeting (B).
Reporting is a part of the control function. Budgeting represents both planning and controlling.
Newman and Summer also classified management processes into the functions of organizing, planning, leading, and controlling.
The most useful method of classifying managerial functions is to group them around the components of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. The above functions of management are common to all business enterprises as well as to organizations of other fields, but the manner in which these are carried out will not be the same in different organizations.
All these functions constitute the job of a manager, and the relative importance of each of them varies from time to time. Thus, tight economic conditions may force a firm to lay more emphasis on control for the time being, while a growing concern may have to devote more time to organizational problems.
Another way of describing the functions of management is to consider it as a process. As a process, management refers to a series of interrelated functions, that is, planning, organizing, staffing, directing or leading, controlling, and coordinating.
Planning means deciding in advance on what, how, and when something is to be done. It involves projecting the future course of action for the business as a whole and also for the different sections within it. Planning is thus, the preparatory step for actions and helps in bridging the gap between the present and the future.
Since planning is essentially choosing, it is dependent upon the availability of alternatives. It is through this process of choosing that decision making can obviously be seen as an important aspect of planning. Thus, planning is an intellectual process and signifies the use of a rational approach to finding solutions to problems.
In a more concrete sense, the process comprises determination or laying down of objectives, policies, procedures, rules, programmes, budgets, and strategies. Management planning might be for a short period and/or for the long run.
For improved efficiency and better results, short-range plans should be properly coordinated with long-range plans. Planning is a fundamental function of management and all other functions of management are greatly influenced by the planning process. The increasing interest evinced in planning amply manifests the importance of planning in businesses.
Very often, the planning process is erroneously described as the prerogative of the top management but the fact is that planning permeates all levels in an organization and all managers, irrespective of their position in the management hierarchy, must plan within the limits of their authority and the decisions of their seniors.
Organizing is the next function of management. Organizing involves breaking a plan into activities, grouping those activities, and allocating resources to them. This is done by structuring the functions and duties to be performed by a group of people for the purpose of attaining the objective of the enterprise.
Functions and activities of the enterprise depend upon the objectives to be accomplished and are directed towards fulfillment of such objectives. This necessitates the establishment of activity-authority relationships in the enterprise.
More specifically, organization as a function of management involves the following steps:
1. Determination of activities of the enterprise, keeping in view its objectives
2. Classification of such activities into convenient groups
3. Assignment of these groups of activities to individuals
4. Delegation of authority and fixing of responsibility for carrying out such assigned duties
5. Coordination of these activity-authority relationships throughout the organization
Thus, division of work among people and coordination of their efforts to achieve specific objectives are the fundamental aspects of organization. Problems related to organizing arise only when group efforts are involved. Similarly, an organization is always intended to achieve objectives and as such, it is a means to an end and never an end in itself. Therefore, for better results, organizations should be based upon practical prudence and sound application of organizational principles.
Organization, as a function of management, helps the executives to establish positions and lay down their functional relations to each other. However, it is through staffing functions that different positions in the organizational structure are manned. The staffing process, therefore, provides the organization with adequate, competent, and qualified personnel at all levels.
Since successful performance by individuals largely determines the success of the structure, it is imperative that the management pays adequate attention to various aspects of the staffing function.
It implies that managers should properly assess the manpower requirements of the organization, consistent with the qualifications required for proper and efficient discharge of duties on the existing and possible jobs in the organization, laying down of suitable selection and placement procedures, developing employee skills through training and appraisal schemes, and devising suitable schemes of compensation.
Staffing is a continuous function. A new enterprise employs people to fill up staff positions in the organization. In an established concern, the deaths/ retirements of employees and the frequent changes in the objectives and the organization itself make staffing a continuous function of management.
Mere planning, organizing, and staffing are not sufficient to set the tasks in motion. Management has well-coordinated plans, properly established duty- authority relations, and able personnel, yet it is through the function of direction that the manager is able to make the employees accomplish their tasks by making them integrate their individual efforts with the interest and objectives of the enterprise.
It calls for properly motivating, communicating with, and leading the subordinates. Motivation induces and inspires the employees to perform better, while through good leadership, a manager is able to make his subordinates work with zeal and confidence.
Directing the subordinates embraces three essential activities:
1. Issuing orders and instructions
2. Guiding and counseling the subordinates in their work with a view to improve their performance
3. Supervising the work of subordinates to ensure that it conforms to orders and instructions issued
While directing, the manager explains to his subordinates the work expected of each of them and also helps them perform their respective jobs to the best of their abilities so that the enterprise objectives can be achieved. But even then, there is no guarantee that work will always proceed according to plan. It is this possibility of actions deviating from plans that calls for constant monitoring of actual performance so that appropriate steps may be taken to make them conform to plans. Thus, the controlling task of management involves compelling the events to conform to plans.
The important steps to be initiated in this direction are as follows:
1. Measurement of accomplishments against predetermined standards and recording of deviations.
2. Analyzing and probing the reasons for such deviations.
3. Fixing of responsibility in terms of persons responsible for negative deviations.
4. Correction of employee performance so that group goals are achieved through effective implementation of plans devised to attain them.
Control is thus closely related to the planning aspect of the job of a manager. But it should not be viewed merely as a post-mortem of past achievements and performances.
In fact, a good control system should suggest corrective measures so that negative deviations may not recur in the future. The principle of feedback when incorporated in the control system can be of great use in this direction.
Coordination, as a separate function of management, has been advocated by many authorities including Henri Fayol. However, coordination, being all pervasive and encompassing every function of management, is considered to be more an important managerial essence than a separate management function. Poor coordination is attributed to failure in performance of all the above-listed management functions.
Coordination deals with harmonizing work relations and efforts at all levels for achieving some common purpose. It may be described as unifying and achieving harmony among individual efforts for the purpose of accomplishing group goals. The whole idea of coordination is to adjust, reconcile, and synchronize individual efforts so that group efforts become more effective and help to achieve some common objectives.
Sometimes coordination is confused with cooperation and it is considered, though erroneously, that if there is cooperation, coordination will automatically follow. Though cooperation helps to achieve coordination, it is by no means the sole factor that ensures the achievement of coordination. One can take the example of a cricket match.
Without coordinated efforts on the part of the players, it is difficult for the team to win a match. Coordination is not spontaneous. Differences in approach, understanding, timing, interest, or efforts have to be reconciled with while synchronizing individual efforts. While managing, a manager coordinates the work of his or her subordinates.
For better results the following guidelines are suggested:
1. Coordination should be viewed as the responsibility of every manager right from the bottom to the top, and he or she must ensure that every individual should know the dominant goals of the enterprise and also how his or her job contributes towards accomplishing the objectives of the department.
Even when a supervisor is able to accomplish the objectives of the department, he or she should be made to realize that the department’s achievement is nothing unless combined with the achievements of the other units and contributes to attaining the dominant objectives of the organization. Thus, every manager should understand and appreciate the hierarchy of objectives.
2. Individual efforts are more easily synchronized if coordination is achieved in the early stages of planning and policy making. Thus, where production and marketing policies are at cross-purposes, coordination between the two groups of activities will be a serious problem.
3. Coordination is better achieved through the understanding of interpersonal, and horizontal rather than vertical relationships of people in the organization or by issue of orders for coordination.
4. Another essential requirement is good communication. As a result of constant changes in the business environment, plans and policies are frequently revised and compromises and adjustments are made. If the required information is not communicated well in time, unifying individual efforts made in order to accomplish the goals of the enterprise become difficult.
The article are written on author point of views, it is far from political views, there may be different opinions of Different Associate Prof. / Assistant Professor / Doctors or any individual, there is no relation to any one as, and not frame to hurt anyone. It is a Knowledge based article so completely not following a single book or principle, the contents is taken from the internet which may be right or wrong, the motive of the article is to enhance Human Resources Capabilities.