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journal articleThe Ethnocentric Basis of Social Science Knowledge Production
Review of Research in Education
Vol. 12 (1985)
, pp. 387-415 (29 pages)
Published By: American Educational Research Association
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Review of Research in Education (RRE) is a periodical volume that provides an overview and analysis of selected areas of relevant research through critical and synthesizing essays. The editor of RRE, in close consultation with its editorial board, plays a critical role in reviewing and defining the current state of knowledge in the field. Each volume is designed around a particular subject.
The American Educational Research Association (AERA) is concerned with improving the educational process by encouraging scholarly inquiry related to education and by promoting the dissemination and practical application of research results. AERA is the most prominent international professional organization with the primary goal of advancing educational research and its practical application. Its 20,000 members are educators; administrators; directors of research, testing or evaluation in federal, state and local agencies; counselors; evaluators; graduate students; and behavioral scientists. The broad range of disciplines represented by the membership includes education, psychology, statistics, sociology, history, economics, philosophy, anthropology, and political science.
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The Industrial Revolution began first in Britain in the 1700s. Historians have identified several reasons for why the Industrial Revolution began first in Britain, including: the effects of the Agricultural Revolution, large supplies of coal, geography of the country, a positive political climate, and a vast colonial empire.
The next main reason for why Britain was the first to industrialize was the large supplies of coal present in the country. Coal was a necessary ingredient in the industrial process as it fueled the steam engines that were used in trains, ships and all other sorts of machinery. Not only did Britain have large supplies of the resource, but it was also easily obtainable. Unlike other European nations, coal in Britain was relatively close to the surface and was therefore relatively easy for miners to find and extract it. The mining of coal became even easier after the invention of the steam engine by Thomas Newcomen, which was originally used to pump water out of coal mines.
The next major reason for Britain being the first country to industrialize was the political climate of the time. In the 1700s, Britain had a stable government after having gone through civil war and revolution in the decades before. In contrast, France underwent its own revolution in the late 1780s and 1790s (French Revolution), meaning it was not concerned with industrialization and was instead focused on its own internal conflict. As well, the British government was open to the ideas of laissez-faire capitalism which were necessary for industrialization to occur. For example, the British government promoted free trade policies with its neighbouring countries which helped create markets for British produced goods. Also, the government implemented the Enclosure Acts, as part of the Enclosure Movement, which promoted private property, and allowed wealthy land owners to increase their farms. This then led to the mass movement of smaller farmers to towns and cities in search of work. Finally, the British government supported other aspects of capitalism, which helped entrepreneurs to create wealth by owning and operating factories and mines. For example, in the early years of the Industrial Revolution, the government allowed child labor and did not restrict owners in terms of rules and regulations, such as: minimum wage laws or worker rights. As such, the political climate created a system in which wealthy business-minded people were able to easily start companies.
In conclusion, historians have identified several reasons for the development of industrialization in Britain, and for why Britain was such an ideal spot for the Industrial Revolution to begin. These reasons include: the effects of the Agricultural Revolution, large supplies of coal, geography of the country, a positive political climate, and a vast colonial empire. They all combined to allow Britain to have the necessary conditions that caused industrialization to flourish.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION RESOURCES
Adam Smith - PowerPoint with Cloze Notes
Adam Smith - Reading, Questions and Key
Karl Marx - PowerPoint with Cloze Notes (25 Slides/Pages on his life and ideas!)
Industrial Revolution Child Labor - Questions and Key (8 Pages)
Industrial Revolution Child Labor - PowerPoint with Cloze Notes (64 Total Slides)
Industrial Revolution in the USA - PowerPoint with Notes Copy (74 Total Slides)
Industrial Revolution Impacts - PowerPoint with Notes Copy (62 Total Slides)
Industrial Revolution Causes - PowerPoint with Notes Copy (44 Total Slides)
Industrial Revolution Working Conditions - PowerPoint with Notes Copy (36 Total Slides)
Industrial Revolution Why Britain Was First - PowerPoint with Notes Copy (54 Total Slides)
Industrial Revolution Living Conditions - PowerPoint with Notes Copy (30 Total Slides)
Industrial Revolution Inventions and Inventors - PowerPoint with Notes Copy
What resources did Britain have that led to the Industrial Revolution?
Natural resources - Britain had large and accessible supplies of coal and iron - two of the most important raw materials used to produce the goods for the early Industrial Revolution. Also available was water power to fuel the new machines, harbors for its merchant ships, and rivers for inland transportation.
What are some Eurocentric reasons as to why industrialization might have happened first in Europe?
For instance, here are some Eurocentric reasons why industrialization might have happened first in Europe. There's the cultural superiority argument that basically holds that Europeans are just better and smarter than other people. Sometimes this is formulated as Europeans possessing superior rationality.
What is a positive feedback loop What did it continually lead to in Britain?
What is a positive feedback loop? What did it continually lead to in Britain? A positive feedback loop typically enhances or amplifies changes (one success feeds success). In Britain the agriculture there was one of the loops. If you improve the agricultural technology, you improve the crop yield.
Where did the Industrial Revolution start?
Most historians place the origin of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain in the middle decades of the 18th century. In the British Isles and most of Europe at this time, most social activity took place in small and medium-sized villages. People rarely traveled far beyond their home village.